Cannabidiol (CBD) is the bedrock of the expansion of medical-cannabis industry. Interestingly, the discovery of cannabidiol started a revolution about cannabis. The first isolation of cannabinoid from marijuana brought about the first laboratory indication that CBD lacks the psychoactive effect. This was what led to the conclusion that cannabinoids seems to produce no observed negative effect on human behavior.
The result of the lab test shows that all clinical subjects that was given CBD experienced an improved condition. The legalization of medical CBD in the US portrays a landmark in the history of cannabinoid. This has paved ways for public researches and support from several medical fields. Ultimately, everything you need to know about CBD is compacted here.
What is Cannabidiol?
Cannabidiol is a chemical compound often referred to as CBD. It is the most prominent cannabinoid molecule extracted from cannabis plant. CBD occur in a high concentration which makes it easier to be isolated and extracted from other cannabinoids. Therefore, the cultivation of CBD-strains for medical and therapeutical value is the priority of most CBD industries.
Does cannabidiol constitute a psychoactive effect?
Cannabidiol is a non-psychoactive component and entirely non-toxic. As the world advances, manufacturers have increased their level of production by making CBD available for human consumption in different forms. Some of which includes tincture, isolate, edible and topical.
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) is the main psychoactive compound found in the cannabis plant. This chemical substance was what created misconceptions about the medical properties contained in marijuana which has restricted many people from taking advantage of its benefit.
Is CBD suitable for both, human and animal?
CBD is known for its uniqueness among other Cannabinoid found in Cannabis plants. Research has also shown proof of evidence from animal and human studies, CBD has no adverse effect or any abuse in humans.
There are over 100 plant cannabinoids present in cannabis, but only a few produce desirable and beneficial effects. Cannabinoid is acidic at its first occurrence, and when decarboxylated, it converts to a neutral form. This is where CBD gain it’s ability to interact with the receptors in the human endocannabinoid system (ECS).
CBD interacts with the endocannabinoid system and produces beneficial effects with the antioxidant, anti-inflammation, anti-depressant and anti-convulsing properties it possesses.
What is Endocannabinoid system?
Endocannabinoid system contains the CB1 receptor and the CB2 receptor. These two receptors regulates some activities and control certain hormones in the body such as sleep, appetite, memory, pain and so on. Note, the body produces cannabinoid naturally through the endocannabinoid system. Also, the intake of CBD supplement will not directly affect the receptors but would rather influence the ECS to deliver more cannabinoid in the body. The CB2 receptor is an essential component of the endocannabinoid system and has gained popularity because of its therapeutic target.
How does CBD interacts with the endocannabinoid system?
CB1 receptor is found in the nerve cells, brain, and spinal cord. Also, it is abundant in the cerebellum, and basal ganglia which regulates pains and memory processes.
Cannabinoids influences the receptor in the system which enable it to release neurotransmitters in the brain. The brain comprises a large number of cells called neurons. With these cells, communication take place through a structure that connects all the neurons called synapses. Neurotransmitters are released to help coordinate your sense of feeling and thinking.
CB2 receptors are channeled towards the functional event happening in the immune system. They are mainly found in the white blood cells, and one of its significances is to regulate the cytokine release. The immune cells also have CB1 receptors, but CB2 is dominant in the immune cells.
When CB1 receptor is activated, the psychotropic action of an agonist of CB1 receptor might erupt. The stimulation of CB2 receptor does not amount to the effect that some selected antagonist acting on the CB2 receptor can combat certain diseases such as Parkinson diseases and the likes. CBD counteracts the psychoactivity of THC, and the CB2 receptor antagonist is non-competitive as it modulates the effect of THC.
Studies have made it known that cannabinoid compound activating CB2 receptor may aid neuronal homeostasis.
Once the word “cannabis” sound in people’s ears, the first thing that crosses their minds is marijuana. This led to controversies about hemp which caused its banishment years ago. Well, sometimes cannabis is often time referred to as marijuana, but in its real sense, cannabis sativa is a genus/species of plant where marijuana and hemp plant comes from, i.e., they both belong to the family. Cannabis is one of the most globally recognized plant because it is a diverse and fascinating species. And unfortunately, the word “marijuana” and “cannabis” is associated with negative connotations which spout up a lot of contention.
Though both plants come from the same species, hemp is entirely in contrast with marijuana regarding cultivation and usage. Marijuana is a crop usually grown for its psychoactive content while Hemp is grown for medicinal or recreational purposes.
The main difference between marijuana and hemp plant
The main difference is the chemical make-up of the two plants. Marijuana contain a chemical compound called tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), responsible for causing a “high” or affects the psychological state of its consumer when the CB1 receptors are stimulated. The level of THC in marijuana is up to 20% while some premium marijuana contains about 25-30% THC.
On the alternative, the THC content present in hemp plant is not more than 0.3% which is too low to cause a high or affect the psychological parameter of its consumer. Hemp has been widely recognized for its richness in cannabidiol and antagonist effect it has when counteracting the THC effect.
On this note, it is safe to say that most CBD products recognized and acceptable according to laws and regulation are the CBD extracted from the industrial hemp plant. They are extracted from hemp plant strain (stalk and seeds) through supercritical CO2 method for purity and concentration of CBD at its peak.
Varieties of CBD Products
Several CBD supplements are produced for health and wellness, and they are readily available in the market for human use. All these products are industrial hemp plant derivatives, and none of them contain a level of THC higher than 0.3%. Some of these products includes tincture, vape, isolate, capsule/pills, concentrate, edible, spray, topical and CBD for pets.
The tincture is produced for the purpose of ingesting it sublingually, i.e., putting some drops under the tongue and afterwards, swallowed. Tincture penetrates into the bloodstream with a speedy effect and gives the consumer the ability to control a dosage.
Vape is another product that comes in the form of vape oil, vape juice or E-liquid. A lot of persons prefer to vape through the use of a vaporizer usually a vape pen. Vaping is not the same as smoking even though they are somehow related. it’s just another means of ingesting CBD for the same health benefit.
The capsules are the common supplement package known to everyone and the most natural way people ingest contents into their system. They are usually packaged in a container made with gelatin which makes it easier for digestion when used. So it is easier to control and stick to the dosage.
Isolate is another form of CBD product. It is very versatile, and of course, the most purified form of CBD product. It can be orally ingested or preferably added as a food recipe. For those that prefer to dab or vape CBD, can also make use of isolate.
CBD concentrate as the name implies is the most highly concentrated form of CBD. It can be added to vape or isolate for a full CBD concentration. It can also be ingested orally on its own or added as a recipe while preparing food.
Edible is another product just like gummies bears and candies. A subtle way of taking adults back in time to the days of their love for sweet things. The usual way of consuming edible is eating and swallowing through the digestive tract. This enables the body to benefit from it on a gradual process over an extended period of time.
Topicals come in the form of patches, salves, ointment and skin care products. They are applied topically to improve skin condition and alleviate pains on the targeted
Another product is CBD spray. This product is usually ingested orally under the mouth while some are produced to be applied topically on the the inflammed area. Sprays also penetrates into the body in no time and it is the easiest way to use CBD.
There are CBD products that are also good for pets. These products interact with the endocannabinoid system of your pet just like that of human being. So therefore, there is no room for worries whether you are contemplating on using CBD for your pet or not. CBD produce the same effect in pet the same way it is in human and cannot affect the mental state of your pet.
THC vs. CBD
Out of many phytocannabinoids cannabis plant produce, the most popular ones widely known and a point of concentration for scientist in the cannabis industry are CBD and THC.
CBD stands a better chance than THC because of its chemical make-up and activities in the endocannabinoid system. Interestingly, both of them offer medicinal and therapeutic value, but react differently in the body. THC can bind the CB1 receptor located in the brain, hence affecting the psychological state of the consumer.
It is good news that CBD has the capacity to counteract the effect of THC, i.e., it balance the high influence of THC, and for some ailment, it was discovered that cannabinoid works better with THC. This is referred to as entourage effect.
Going by the medical health benefit CBD offers; it contains healing properties and anti-inflammatory properties that are good for some ailment. CBD is distributed in the nervous system.
Generally, THC is not recommended because it binds the receptors in the brain and causes a “high” effect. On the other hand, it is widely known for body relaxation and therapeutical values it offers.
Apart from the psychoactive activity that differentiates CBD from THC, acceptance and legality is another crucial factor that separates the two molecules. CBD extracted from hemp plant is acceptable in the society and have been advocated for to be federally legal. Consequently, THC was never a point of consideration for legalization because, it is the sole reason cannabis was categorized as part of what the United States Controlled Substance Act banished.
The discovery of CBD
It started in the year 1940 when Roger Adam first isolated CBD from the rest of the plant component. Not knowing what it was or its capability, it was lab tested, and the most documented test was carried out on a rabbit and mice dated as far back as 1946 by a man named Walter. S Loewe. This first experiment indicates that CBD is non-toxic and cannot affect the human’s mind.
Unfortunately, R. Adams could not identify the chemical structure of CBD, he was less reckoned with as the first person to discover CBD. Dr. Raphael Mechoulam who is referred to as the originator of Cannabis discovered THC and its psychoactive effect in 1964. He also found the chemical make-up of cannabinoid and the numerous benefits it tends to offer.
What led to the rise of CBD?
The discovery of CBD brought about the rise and world advocacy for the medicinal use of CBD. There were agitations on the legalization of CBD because it lacks psychoactive effect and has proved to contain some healing properties through clinical trials until 2013. Charlotte Figi a 6 years old girl was born with myoclonic epilepsy. She suffered seizure up to 300 times a week and it was discovered that her seizure was gone after she used high-CBD strain. This story skyrocket CBD as a medical remedy that may alleviate some ailment.
Cannabis is among the world fastest growing plant in the agricultural industry and many people are in support of its legalization today. As at 2014 to date, medical personnel and medical journals have specifically stated some benefits of cannabis extract and how it can help certain medical conditions.
The world generally is faced with various health problems. Some have been fought against, while the solutions to others are yet to be discovered. The essential thing is getting the right information and means of getting rid of that ailment through the use of herb-based supplement that work effectively. CBD may serve as a protective and preventive measure for some health conditions. Therefore, it’s a speedy widely-known therapy to users for various health problems.
Regardless of numerous therapy for health problems in the medical environment, CBD is tremendous and an exceptional cannabinoid effective to users.
The Effective benefits of CBD to Health Conditions
Neuroprotective: Cannabinoid has an affinity with CB1 receptor which may help to alleviate neurodegenerative disorder which is a disease that affects the brain. Neurodegenerative problems are sourced from Sclerosis and epileptic disorder. A test carried out on an animal shows that CBD may help to prevent the progression of neurodegenerative disorder that generates from Alzheimer disease.
It may reduce Anxiety: Anxiety could be as a result of a social and neurological disorder or post-traumatic stress. Anxiety affects people’s health and work. CBD has however, been discovered from researches to help in remedying anxiety. CBD which works with the brain receptor known as CB1 may help to prevent and reduce the psychological effect of anxiety and manage stress. It may also improve symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder.
It may reduce Seizures: Unlike many other Pharmacological medications, it has been recently discovered by scientist the effect of CBD interacting with various illnesses one of which is Seizures. Following the story of figi, the 6 years old girl who used a high concentration for her seizure, it means CBD is potent and may be safe to use for seizure. American epilepsy has stated the affinity CBD has with seizure and how it can reduce it.
It may relieve chronic pain: Amazingly, CBD may be an excellent solution to chronic pain. One of the benefits of CBD is, it may reduce chronic pain such as muscle spasms and tension is incredible. Researchers have also suggested that sleep helps to build blood cells and tissues. Therefore CBD may help to enhance the rest your body deserves especially for those with Parkinson disease.
It may relieve insomnia: CBD has been found useful medicinally for centuries and may help to relieve anxiety. It may aid the sleep-wake cycle and relieve other issues related to sleeplessness. CBD is also known to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory abilities, which makes CBD a promising therapy for insomnia and may help to improve quality sleep.
It may reduce inflammation: It is essential to understand what inflammation entails. Inflammation is majorly a bodily response to any harmful stimuli or any threat to your health. The question is, what benefit does CBD have on inflammation? CB1 receptor & CB2 receptor has been discovered as a therapeutic solution that may be a relieve to inflammation. Also, it has been found that cannabinoid contains anti-inflammatory properties which may help to reduce inflammation that could lead to diseases.
It may help remedy Diabetes: Diabetes has become a global rise health issue, especially among those who feed on the American diet. Although science has not discovered the significant causes of diabetes, it could be hereditary or as a result of a virus. Discoveries have made it known that CBD may be of help in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, a result of excessive sugar in the bloodstream. It may also help to reduce obesity, blood glucose level and resist insulin. More so, CBD may help to aid metabolism in the body.
Possible Side Effect of Cannabinoid
Even though CBD is safe to use without causing a psychoactive effect, there are some side effect that are associated with it.
- Dry sensation in the mouth: The affinity endocannabinoid system has with the secretion of saliva can prompt dry mouth. It was discovered that the CB1 receptor and the CB2 receptor could be found in the submandibular gland and the activation of these receptors may alter the production of saliva. There is nothing to worry about than to take a glass of water to quench the thirst.
- Low blood pressure: CBD affects the blood pressure immediately it’s ingested, and it is not advisable for people who are under blood pressure medication to consume CBD without contacting their healthcare provider.
- High dosage worsens Parkinson disease: The fact that CBD may be a remedy for Parkinson disease does not mean it should be taken in high dose. An overdose of CBD might worsen the muscle tremor. It’s only the appropriate dose that is required.
- Nausea: For some reasons, some people don’t feel at ease once they ingest CBD. They experience stomach discomfort with an increased appetite. However, the body system differs and it’s not everyone that will experience it. If encountered, it doesn’t last for long.
- Sleepiness and drowsiness: CBD may help to induce sleep, and the more reason for its recommended for those who have insomnia. It may weaken the nerves and should not be used when embarking on a tedious activity.
- Dizziness: Dizziness is also one of the symptoms some CBD users have experienced. So far CBD affects the blood pressure then there is every possibility that the body will experience dizziness.
Many people finds it difficult to admit the legalization of CBD as all cannabis species are grouped under the schedule of Drug. Categorically, this factor has laid a ban on CBD according to the United States Controlled Substances Act. It’s so unfortunate that the government finds it hard to repeal the law as there was no clarity in regards to what distinguish marijuana from the hemp plant.
Maybe the government is skeptical about the possibility of CBD cultivation and consumption for medicinal health purposes prejudicial to human health and against public policy . It could be the fear of the unknown or producers mixing a large amount of THC for those interested in the consumption of the psychoactive content and might propel the consumers to hide under the umbrella of “health benefit” while consuming THC which might be uncontrollable. This is out agitations in the industry because it is rare for the government to ignore obvious observations about a plant that can benefit human health and are still dragging feet down to its legalization even after 45 years.
The legal confusion between Agricultural farm bill 2014 and the DEA rule
Accordingly, the Agricultural farm bill 2014 establishes the rules guiding how to grow legal “Industrial hemp plant” for medicinal and recreational purposes. Section 7606 establishes that higher education institute and departments in the state can nurture and cultivate industrial hemp plant which is permitted under state law for agricultural researches.
This legalizes the growth of hemp plant that contains a high level of CBD and 0.3% THC which is in no way harmful to human health. On the other hand, the drug enforcement administration(DEA) rule maintains that cannabis including CBD is dangerous and should remain illegal following their own interpretation of CSA.
The agricultural farm bill 2014 technically contemplates potential dispute against the Drug Enforcement Administration rule claiming the illegality of CBD molecule and the United State Controlled Substances Act. This practically brought about a lawsuit by the hemp industry association that the DEA has no power over cannabis plant because the controlled substance act did not include CBD as one of the substances that is illegal.
The unanimous court ruling
In the 2004 ninth circuit court ruling, it was held that the directive of DEA is in line with the federal Controlled Substance Act (CSA). This led to an authorization of DEA’s enforcement, but is not permitted to regulate the whole cannabis plant. In the end, the farm bill wins.
Therefore it is illegal for anyone to provide cannabis materials under the claim of research without settling with the FDA. The Controlled substance Act requires that anyone who wants to embark on any study with the material must be registered with the DEA for an authorization.
The first medical cannabis dispensary in the United States, Fairfax’s Marin Alliance for medical marijuana set the hallmark for other states to follow. CBD is legal at the state level in 50 states in the US, but up to date, it is not federally legal. But with the speed at which CBD is moving, there is every possibility that CBD will be legalized in no time.
Emerging Trends in the Recreational Cannabis Industry
Mainly, what is trending in the cannabis industry today is the wellness lifestyle built around cannabis especially hemp plant. So, this has prompted most states to push for the legalization of cannabis regardless of the controversies around it. Approximately, 56% of American believe that cannabis should be legalized and there are many more states taking on the legalization of cannabis.
Another exciting trend in the industry is the invention of different CBD products. Manufacturers have done so well by producing different products that offer people different means of consumption. These methods of usage vary and they include oral ingestion, topical application, edibles and sublingual method.
In the past years, there have been in existence quite uncompromising misconception about cannabis. Due to the discovery of the benefits it has to offer, many people are hungry for knowledge. They want to know its dosage and whether it is good for their health. There has been a lot of materials and awareness going on to bring people to the knowledge of cannabis.