Cannabidiol (CBD) is the bedrock of the expansion of medical-cannabis industry. The discovery of cannabidiol started a revolution in thinking about cannabis and the first isolation of cannabinoid from marijuana brought about the first laboratory indication that CBD lacks the psychoactive effect. It seems to produce no observed effect on human behavior.
The result of the test shows all clinical subject that was given CBD experienced an improved condition. The legalization of medical CBD in the US portrays a landmark in the history of cannabinoid. It has paved ways for public researches and support from several medical fields. Ultimately, everything you need to know about CBD is compacted here.
What is Cannabidiol?
Cannabidiol is a chemical compound often referred to as CBD. It is the most prominent cannabinoid molecule out of the many phytocannabinoids produced by cannabis plant. CBD occurs in a high concentration that makes it easy to be extracted from cannabis. It is isolated from THC and other cannabinoid and cultivating CBD-strain is almost the priority of CBD industries.
Does cannabidiol constitute a psychoactive effect?
Cannabidiol is a non-psychoactive component, and in our present day, manufacturers have made it available for human consumption in different forms from tincture to isolate to edibles and so on. CBD works in varieties of ways, and it is entirely non-toxic. It has so many pathways which include several medicinal benefits.
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) is the main psychoactive compound that was found in the cannabis plant. This chemical compound was what created misconceptions about the medical properties contained in marijuana which has restricted many people from taking advantage of its benefit.
Is CBD suitable for both, human and animal?
CBD is known for its uniqueness among other Cannabinoid found in Cannabis plants. Research has also shown the proof of evidence from animal and human studies, CBD has no adverse effect or any abuse in humans.
There are over 100 plant cannabinoids present in cannabis, but only a few produce desirable and beneficial effects. A cannabinoid is acids at its first occurrence, and when decarboxylated, it converts to a neutral form which gains an ability to interact with the receptors in the human endocannabinoid system (ECS).
CBD interacts with the endocannabinoid system and produces beneficial effects with the antioxidant, anti-inflammation, anti-depressant and anti-convulsing properties it possesses.
What is Endocannabinoid system?
Endocannabinoid system which contains the CB1 receptor and the CB2 receptor regulates the processes inside the body, and they control certain hormones in the body such as sleep, appetite, memory, pain and so on. The body produces cannabinoid naturally through the endocannabinoid system. An intake of CBD supplement will not directly affect the receptors but would instead influence the ECS to deliver more cannabinoid. The CB2 receptor is an essential component of the endocannabinoid system and has gained popularity because of its therapeutic target.
How does CBD interacts with the endocannabinoid system?
CB1 receptor is found in the nerve cells in the brain, spinal cord and also abundant in the cerebellum, basal ganglia which is the reason why pains and memory processes are regulated.
Cannabinoids have a wide range of influencing the receptor system that releases neurotransmitters in the brain. The brain comprises a large number of cells called neurons in which communication takes place through a structure that connects all the neurons called synapses. A neurotransmitter is released which helps to coordinate our sense of feeling and thinking.
CB2 receptors are channeled towards the functional event happening in the immune system. They are mainly found in the white blood cells, and one of its significant roles is to regulate the cytokine release. The immune cells also have CB1 receptors, but CB2 is more dominated in the immune cells.
Though when the CB1 receptor is activated, the psychotropic action of an agonist of CB1 receptor might erupt, but the stimulation of CB2 receptor does not amount to any effect in which some selected antagonist acting on the CB2 receptor can combat certain diseases such as Parkinson diseases and the likes. CBD counteracts the psychoactivity of THC, and the CB2 receptor antagonist is non-competitive as it modulates the effect of THC.
Studies have made it known that cannabinoid compound activating CB2 receptor can aid neuronal homeostasis.
Once the word “cannabis” sounds in people’s ears, the first thing that crosses their minds is marijuana. This has led to controversies about hemp and that caused its banishment years ago. Well, sometimes cannabis is often time referred to as marijuana, but in its real sense, cannabis sativa is a genus/species of plant in which marijuana and hemp plant comes from, i.e., they both belong to the family. It is one of the most globally spread and recognized plant because it is a diverse and fascinating species. And unfortunately, the word “marijuana” and “cannabis” is associated with negative connotations which spout up a lot of misconceptions.
Though both plants come from the same species, hemp is entirely in contrast with marijuana regarding cultivation and usage. Marijuana is a crop grown for its psychoactive content while Hemp is grown for medicinal or recreational purposes.
The main difference between marijuana and hemp plant
The main difference is the chemical make-up of the two plants. Marijuana contains a chemical compound called tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) responsible for causing a “high” or affects the psychological state of its consumer when the CB1 receptors are stimulated. The level of THC in marijuana is up to 20% while some premium marijuana contains 25-30% THC.
On the alternative, the THC content present in hemp plant is not more than 0.3% which is too low to cause a high or by any means affect the psychological parameter of a consumer. Hemp has been widely recognized for its richness in cannabidiol and antagonist effect it has when counteracting the THC effect.
Therefore, on this note, most CBD product recognized and acceptable according to laws and regulation are the CBD extracted from the industrial hemp plant. They are extracted from hemp plant strain (stalk and seeds) through different methods, but the most prominent one is a supercritical CO2 method for purity and concentration of CBD at its peak.
Varieties of CBD Products
Several CBD supplements are produced for health and wellness, and they are readily available in the market for human consumption. All these products are industrial hemp plant derivatives, and none of them contain a level of THC higher than 0.3%. They include tincture, vape, isolate, capsule/pills, concentrate, edible, spray, topical and CBD for pets.
The tincture is produced with the purpose of ingesting it sublingually, i.e., putting some drops under the tongue and afterward, it should be swallowed. Tincture penetrates into the bloodstream with a speedy effect and gives the consumer the ability to control a dosage.
Vape is another product that comes in the form of vape oil, vape juice or E-liquid. A lot of persons prefers to vape through the use of a vaporizer especially a vape pen. Vaping does not mean the consumer is smoking the psychoactive content in cannabis, but it’s just another means of ingesting CBD for the same health benefit.
The capsules are the common supplement package known to everyone and the most natural way people ingest contents into their system. They are usually packaged in a container made with gelatin which makes it easier for it to digest when used. So it is easier to control and stick to the dosage.
Isolate is another form of CBD product which is very versatile, and it is the most purified form of CBD product. It can be orally ingested or added as a food recipe. For those that prefer to dab or vape, CBD can also make use of isolate.
CBD concentrate as the name implies is the most highly concentrated form of CBD. It can be added to vape or isolate for a full CBD concentration. It can also be ingested orally on its own or added as a recipe while preparing food.
Edible is another product just like gummies bears and candies. It is a way to take adults back in time during the days of their love for sweet things. The usual way of consuming edible is eating and swallowing through the digestive tract. This enables the body to benefit from it on a gradual process over an extended period of time.
Of course, some topicals come in the form of patches, salves, ointment and skin care products. They are applied topically to improve skin condition.
Another product is CBD sprays. They are usually ingested orally under the mouth while some are produced to be applied topically on the the inflammed area. Sprays also penetrates into the body in no time and it is the easiest way of using CBD.
There are CBD products that are also good for pets. They interact with the endocannabinoid system of your pet just like that of a human being. So therefore, there is no room for worries whether you are contemplating on using CBD for your pets or not. They produce the same effect just like the way it is in human and cannot affect the mental state of your pets.
THC vs. CBD
Out of many phytocannabinoid that are present in the cannabis plant, the most popular ones that are widely known and a point of concentration for scientist and in the cannabis industry is CBD and THC.
CBD stands a better chance than THC because of their chemical make-up and their activities in the endocannabinoid system. Interestingly, both of them offer medicinal and therapeutic value, but CBD does not cause a high which THC does. THC can bind the CB1 receptor located in the brain, hence affecting the psychological state of the consumer. It is good news that CBD has the strength to counteract the effect of THC, i.e., it balances the high influence of THC, and for some ailment, it was discovered that cannabinoid works better with THC which is often referred to as entourage effect.
Going by the medical health benefit CBD has to offer; it contains healing properties and anti-inflammatory properties that are good for some ailment. CBD is distributed in the nervous system.
THC on the other hand also has its benefit and widely known for reducing vomiting associated with chemotherapy and body relaxation. But what makes it different from CBD is THC is not entirely recommended because THC receptor is mainly in the brain which causes a “high” effect.
Apart from the psychoactive content that differentiates CBD from THC, acceptance and legality is another crucial factor that separates the two molecules. CBD extracted from hemp plant is acceptable in the society and have been advocated for to be federally legal. But THC was never put into consideration to be legalized because it is the reason why cannabis was categorized as part of what the United States controlled substance act bans.
The discovery of CBD
It started in the year 1940 when Roger Adam first isolated CBD from the rest of the plant component. Not knowing what it was or its capability, it was lab tested, and the most documented test was carried out on a rabbit and mice dated as far back as 1946 by a man named Walter. S Loewe. This first experiment indicates that CBD does non-toxic and cannot affect the human’s mind.
But because R. Adams could not identify the chemical structure of CBD, he was less reckoned with as the first person to discover CBD. Dr. Raphael Mechoulam who is referred to as the originator of Cannabis discovered THC and its psychoactive effect in 1964. He also found the chemical make-up of cannabinoid and the numerous benefits it tends to offer.
What led to the rise of CBD?
The discovery of CBD brought about the rise and the world advocacy for the medicinal use of CBD. There were agitations on the legalization of CBD so far it has no psychoactive effect and has proved to contain some healing properties through clinical trials until 2013. Charlotte Figi a 6 years old girl was born with myoclonic epilepsy which she suffered seizure up to 300 times a week. It was discovered that her seizure was all gone after she used high-CBD strain. This story skyrocket CBD as a medical remedy that can alleviate some ailment.
Cannabis is among the world fastest growing plant in the agricultural industry and of course, many people are in support of its legalization. And as at 2014 to date, medical personnel and medical journals have specifically stated some benefits of cannabis extract and how it can help certain medical conditions.
The world generally is faced with various health problems. Some have been fought against, while the solution to others is yet to be discovered. The essential thing is getting the right information and means of getting rid of that ailment through the use of supplement that could effectively work. CBD is a protective and preventive measure for some health conditions. Therefore, it’s a speedy widely-known therapy to users for various health problems.
Regardless of numerous therapy for health problems in the medical environment, CBD is one tremendous and exceptional cannabinoid effective to users.
The Effective benefits of CBD to Health Conditions
Neuroprotective: Cannabinoid has an affinity with CB1 receptor which may help to alleviate neurodegenerative disorder which is a disease that affects the brain. Neurodegenerative problems are sourced from Sclerosis and epileptic disorder. A test carried out on an animal shows that CBD may helps to prevent the progression of neurodegenerative disorder that generates from Alzheimer disease.
It may reduce Anxiety: Anxiety could be as a result of a social and neurological disorder or post-traumatic stress, which can affect people lives and work. CBD has, however, been discovered from researches to help in remedying anxiety. Using CBD which works with brain receptor known as CB1, may help to prevent and reduce the psychological effect of anxiety and manage stress. It may also improve symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder.
It may reduce Seizures: Unlike many other Pharmacological medications that have the same compound as CBD, it has been recently discovered by scientist the effect of CBD interacting with various illnesses one of which is Seizures. Following the story of figi, the 6 years old girl who used a high concentrate of CBD and reduced her seizure, it means CBD is potent and may be safe to use for those suffering from seizure. American epilepsy has stated the affinity CBD has with seizure and how it can reduce it.
It may relieve chronic pain: Amazingly, CBD has been an excellent solution when suffering from chronic pain. Among the benefits of CBD, its effectiveness in reducing chronic pain, such as muscle spasms and tension is incredible. Researchers have also suggested that sleep helps to build blood cells and tissues. Therefore CBD may help to enhance rest that the body deserves especially for those who have Parkinson disease.
It may relieve insomnia: CBD has been found useful medicinally for centuries which may help relieve anxiety, most especially may serve as a sleep aid relieve and other mood problems from sleep-wake cycles to emotional regulation. CBD is also widely known to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory abilities, which make CBD a promising therapy for insomnia and may help to improve quality sleep.
It may reduce inflammation: Before diving on how CBD may help to prevent inflammation, let have the understanding of what inflammation entails. Inflammation is majorly a bodily response to any harmful stimuli or any threat to your health. The question is, what benefit does CBD has on inflammation? CB1 receptor & CB2 receptor has been discovered as a therapeutic solution that may be a relieve to inflammation. And it has been found that cannabinoid contains anti-inflammatory properties which may help to reduce inflammation that could lead to diseases.
It may help remedy Diabetes: Diabetes has become a global rise health issue, most especially among those who feed more on the American diet, which has more sugar content in it. Although science has not discovered the significant causes of diabetes, it could be hereditary or as a result of a virus. Discoveries have been made on CBD and was found that it may be of help in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, which could be as a result of excessive sugar in the bloodstream. It may also help to reduce obesity, blood glucose level and resist insulin. More so, CBD may help to aid metabolism in the body.
Possible Side Effect of Cannabinoid
Even though CBD is safe to use without causing a psychoactive effect, still, there are some side effect that is associated with it
- Dry sensation in the mouth: The affinity endocannabinoid system has with the secretion of saliva could prompt dry mouth. It was discovered that the CB1 receptor and the CB2 receptor could be found in the submandibular gland and the activation of these receptors may alter the production of saliva. There is nothing to worry about than to take a glass of water to quench the thirst.
- Low blood pressure: CBD affects the blood pressure immediately it’s ingested, and it is not advisable for people who are under blood pressure medication to consume CBD without contacting their healthcare provider.
- High dosage worsens Parkinson disease: In a much as CBD is a remedy for Parkinson disease does not mean it should be taken in high dose. An overdose of CBD might worsen the muscle tremor. It’s only the appropriate dose that works.
- Nausea: Some people don’t feel at ease once they ingest CBD. They might experience stomach discomfort with an increased appetite. But as the body differs, not everyone will experience it and if encountered, doesn’t last for long.
- Sleepy and drowsiness: CBD induces sleep, and that is why it is recommended for those who have insomnia. It may weaken the nerves and should not be used when embarking on a tedious activity.
- Dizziness: Dizziness is also one of the symptoms some CBD users have experienced. So far CBD affects the blood pressure then there is every possibility that the body will experience dizziness.
Many people find it more difficult to admit the legalization of CBD as all cannabis species are grouped under the schedule of Drug which lay a ban on it according to the United States Controlled Substances Act. And it’s so unfortunate that the government finds it hard to repeal the law as there was no clarity as regards what distinguish marijuana from the hemp plant.
Or maybe the government is skeptical about the possibility of CBD cultivation and consumption for medicinal health purposes without producers mixing THC for those that want to consume the psychoactive content which is illegal and the consumer might hide under the umbrella of “health benefit” while consuming THC which might be uncontrollable. Because it’s rare for the government to ignore obvious observations about a plant that can benefit human health and are still dragging feet down to its legalization even after 45 years.
The legal confusion between Agricultural farm bill 2014 and the DEA rule
Accordingly, the Agricultural farm bill 2014 establishes the rules guiding how to grow legal “Industrial hemp plant” for medicinal and recreational purposes. Section 7606 establishes that higher education institute and departments in the state can nurture and cultivate industrial hemp plant which is permitted under state law for agricultural researches.
This legalizes the growth of hemp plant that contains a high level of CBD and 0.3% THC which is in no way harmful to human health. On the other hand, the drug enforcement administration(DEA) rule maintains that cannabis including CBD is dangerous and should remain illegal following their own interpretation of CSA.
The agricultural farm bill 2014 technically contemplates potential dispute against the Drug Enforcement Administration rule claiming the illegality of CBD molecule and the United State Controlled Substances Act. This practically brought about a lawsuit by the hemp industry association that the DEA has no power over cannabis plant because the controlled substance act did not include CBD as one of the substances that is illegal.
The unanimous court ruling
Then in the 2004 ninth circuit court ruling, it was held that the directive of DEA is in line with the federal Controlled Substance Act (CSA), which authorizes the DEA’s enforcement power, but is not permitted to regulate the whole cannabis plant. In the end, the farm bill wins.
Therefore it is illegal for anyone to provide cannabis materials under the claim of research without settling with the FDA. The Controlled substance Act requires that anyone who wants to embark on any study with the material must be registered with the DEA for an authorization.
The first medical cannabis dispensary in the United States is Fairfax’s Marin Alliance for medical marijuana which set the hallmark for other states to follow. CBD is legal at the state level in 50 states in the US, but up to date, it is not federally legal. But with the speed at which CBD is moving, there is every possibility that CBD will be legalized in no time.
Emerging Trends in the Recreational Cannabis Industry
Mainly what is trending in the cannabis industry today is the wellness lifestyle built round cannabis especially hemp plant. So this has prompted most states to push for the legalization of cannabis regardless of the controversies around it. Approximately, 56% of American believe that cannabis should be legalized and there are many more states taking on the legalization of cannabis.
Another exciting trend in the industry is the new inventions of different products containing CBD. Manufacturers have done so well by producing different products that give people choices of consumption method in which Colorado is well known for the immense use of cannabis. The methods of usages vary from oral ingestion to topical application and the use of vaporizer pen.
In the past years, there have been in existence quite uncompromising misconception about cannabis generally, but due to the discovery of the benefits it has to offer, many people are hungry for knowledge. People want to know whether it is good for their health and its dosage. There has been a lot of materials and awareness going on to bring people to the knowledge cannabis.